Endometriosis and Infertility

Endometriosis and Infertility

If you have endometriosis, it may be more difficult for you to become pregnant. Up to 30% to 50% of women with endometriosis may experience infertility. Endometriosis can influence fertility in several ways: distorted anatomy of the pelvis, adhesions, scarred fallopian tubes, inflammation of the pelvic structures, altered immune system functioning, changes in the hormonal environment of the eggs, impaired implantation of a pregnancy, and altered egg quality.

Endometriosis begins from a young age and as it is a progressive disease. The signs and symptoms keep worsening throughout the women’s reproductive life. Besides excruciating pelvic pain and infertility, other symptoms include:

*Pain during sex
*Pain with ovulation
*Fatigue
*Frequent urination
*Low back pain
*Painful bowel movements
*Constipation or diarrhea

The link between endometriosis and infertility

“According to a report published in 2017, endometriosis is a very common disease that occurs in 6 to 10 per cent of the general female population; in women with pain, infertility, or both, the frequency is 35–50 per cent. About 25 to 50 per cent of infertile women have endometriosis, and 30 to 50 per cent of women with endometriosis are infertile. However, the awareness of this condition in India is very low. Unfortunately, some women come to know about it when they experience difficulty getting pregnant. Various researches are still on to find the exact reason why women with endometriosis are infertile,” Dr Aswati Nair, fertility consultant, Nova IVF told indianexpress.com.

Some unproven theories say:

Inflammation causes the production of chemicals known as cytokines. These cytokines can inhibit the sperm and egg cells, making fertilization more difficult.

Scarring and adhesions that occur with endometriosis can block the fallopian tubes or uterus, making it difficult for the sperm to meet the egg.

Endometrial tissue on the ovaries can inhibit ovulation, preventing the release of an egg.

Is IVF treatment safe for endometriotic women?

“Yes, IVF treatment is definitely safe for endometriotic women. Some clinicians prefer to take out endometriotic cyst from the ovary prior to taking up for IVF, this could be the double edged sword because the ovarian reserve of the patient can go down after the surgery. Hence most clinicians go ahead with IVF and ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) without removal of the endometriotic cyst,” she said.

She added: “Even a 2011 study published in Human Reproduction used ultrasounds and questionnaires from women with endometriosis who received IVF to explore if the procedure had any effect on their disease. It concluded that IVF does not expose women to a consistent risk of endometriosis-related symptom progression. However, experts suggest that ultrasounds are not the best way to diagnose and track endometriosis. The progression needs to be determined via laparoscopy which in the present date is a gold standard form of investigation to diagnose endometriosis.”

This article originally appeared in The Indian Express by Lifestyle Desk

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